MH-Z19 CO2 sensor



  • I couldn't find a thread about this specific sensor, even though it seems to be the most popular one currently.

    I found some perhaps useful pieces of code:

    Does anyone have working code they could share?





  • If you mean the MG811 on that list: it's pretty bad.

    • Long warmup times (24 hours..)
    • Needs 6v
    • Doesn't really measure CO2, but responds to all kinds of other gasses too.
    • Loses callibration. It's mostly a chemical proces.

    The cool thing about the MH-Z14 and the even better MH-Z19 is that they use light spectrum analysis. They send infrared light, and measure how much of that light is absorbed in the spectrum that CO2 absorbs in.

    While not very accurate, they are very precise.
    precise vs accurate

    So they are not very good in giving absolute values, but they are very good in measuring relative changes.

    These sensors have a function where you can set the baseline by sending them a specific command. For example, you could take the sensor outside, and then set the outside value as the zero mark. Or you could just use the value they put in at the factory.



  • Some more useful code sources I found:

    http://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/262473/mh-z19-co2-sensor-giving-diferent-values-using-uart-and-pwm

    http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=445938.0

    Russian snippets:
    http://www.2150692.ru/faq/87-co2-mhz19-arduino

    I've learnt that you can get data form this sensor in three ways.

    • Serial (uart)
    • Analog
    • PWM

    The datasheet can be found here. There seem to be 2 version of the sensor (the manual refers to 'v2'). And you can set it to give a reading between 0 and 2000ppm or between 0 and 5000ppm. You send it a code to switch these two modes.

    This seems a useable code:

    int readCO2()
    {

    byte cmd[9] = {0xFF, 0x01, 0x86, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x79};
      // command to ask for data
      char response[9]; // for answer

    mySerial.write(cmd, 9); //request PPM CO2
      mySerial.readBytes(response, 9);
      if (response[0] != 0xFF)
      {
        Serial.println("Wrong starting byte from co2 sensor!");
        return -1;
      }

    if (response[1] != 0x86)
      {
        Serial.println("Wrong command from co2 sensor!");
        return -1;
      }

    int responseHigh = (int) response[2];
      int responseLow = (int) response[3];
      int ppm = (256 * responseHigh) + responseLow;
      return ppm;
    }

    Just be sure not to call that function too often, the sensor has to warm up.

    The SenseAir S8 sensor also looks good. It auto-callibrates apparently, and it comes with an arduino library. But it's about $60 at the moment.



  • I received the device, and have a mySensor working. I'll share the code here after a little clean-up.



  • The code:

    /*
     * The MySensors Arduino library handles the wireless radio link and protocol
     * between your home built sensors/actuators and HA controller of choice.
     * The sensors forms a self healing radio network with optional repeaters. Each
     * repeater and gateway builds a routing tables in EEPROM which keeps track of the
     * network topology allowing messages to be routed to nodes.
     *
     * Created by Henrik Ekblad <henrik.ekblad@mysensors.org>
     * Copyright (C) 2013-2015 Sensnology AB
     * Full contributor list: https://github.com/mysensors/Arduino/graphs/contributors
     *
     * Documentation: http://www.mysensors.org
     * Support Forum: http://forum.mysensors.org
     *
     * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
     * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
     * version 2 as published by the Free Software Foundation.
     *
     *******************************
     *
     *  DESCRIPTION
     *
     *  MH-Z19 CO2 sensor
     *  
     *  It communicates with your board over serial at 9600 speed.
     *  
     *  
     *
     */
    
    
    //------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    // if you uncomment this, you can get test and debug updates about the sensor' wireless connection by using the serial monitor tool.
    #define MY_DEBUG
    
    // Enable and select radio type attached
    #define MY_RADIO_NRF24                            // A 2.4Ghz transmitter and receiver, often used with MySensors.
    // #define MY_RF24_PA_LEVEL RF24_PA_MIN           // This sets a low-power mode for the radio. Useful if you use the verison with the bigger antenna, but don't want to power that from a separate power source. It can also fix problems with fake Chinese versions of the radio.
    // #define MY_RADIO_RFM69                         // 433Mhz transmitter and reveiver.
    
    // Choose if you want this sensor to also be a repeater.
    // #define MY_REPEATER_FEATURE                    // Just remove the two slashes at the beginning of this line to also enable this sensor to act as a repeater for other sensors. If this node is on battery power, you probably shouldn't enable this.
    
    
    // Libraries
    #include <MySensors.h>
    #include <SoftwareSerial.h>
    
    
    // This can be changed:
    unsigned long co2MeasurementInterval = 30000;     // Time to wait between reads (in milliseconds).
    SoftwareSerial mySerial(10, 11);                  // RX, TX . You can choose other pins if you prefer.
    
    
    // Mysensors settings
    #define CHILD_ID_CO2 0                            // The Co2 sensor' ID on this node.
    MyMessage msgCo2(CHILD_ID_CO2, V_LEVEL);
    MyMessage msgCo2b(CHILD_ID_CO2, V_UNIT_PREFIX);
    
    
    void presentation()
    {
      // Send the sketch version information to the gateway and Controller
      sendSketchInfo("AIQ Sensor CO2 MH-Z19", "1.1");
    
      // Register attached sensor(s) to gateway
      present(CHILD_ID_CO2, S_AIR_QUALITY);
      send(msgCo2b.set("ppm"));
    }
    
    
    void setup() 
    {
      delay(1000);
      Serial.begin(115200);
      delay(1000);
    
      mySerial.begin(9600);
      delay(2000);
      while (mySerial.read()!=-1) {};  //clear Co2 buffer.
      Serial.println("hello world, I am a sensor.");
    }
    
    
    void loop() 
    {
    
       // You should not change these variables:
       static unsigned long previousCo2Millis = 0;       // Used to remember the time of the last temperature measurement.
    
       unsigned long currentMillis = millis(); // The time since the sensor started, counted in milliseconds. This script tries to avoid using the Sleep function, so that it could at the same time be a MySensors repeater.
    
      if (currentMillis - previousCo2Millis >= co2MeasurementInterval) { // this only gets triggered when enough time has passed.
        Serial.println("CO2 - Sending data request to sensor.");
        previousCo2Millis = currentMillis;
        
        long co2ppm = readCO2();    
        Serial.println("Co2 - PPM = " + String(co2ppm));
        send(msgCo2.set((long)ceil(co2ppm))); 
        Serial.print("Co2 - zzzzZZZZzzzzZZZZzzzz\n");
      }
    
    }
    
    
    // Main function that gets the Co2 data
    int readCO2()
    {
      while (mySerial.read()!=-1) {};  //clear serial buffer  
    
      char response[9]; // for answer
      byte cmd[9] = {0xFF, 0x01, 0x86, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x79};
      
      // command to ask for data
      mySerial.write(cmd, 9); //request PPM CO2 
    
      mySerial.readBytes(response, 9);
    
        Serial.print(response[0], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");   
        Serial.print(response[1], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");    
        Serial.print(response[2], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");          
        Serial.print(response[3], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");          
        Serial.print(response[4], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");          
        Serial.print(response[5], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");        
        Serial.print(response[6], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");   
        Serial.print(response[7], HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");      
        Serial.print(response[8], HEX); 
        Serial.println(" - END");  
    
      if (response[0] != 0xFF)
      {
        Serial.println("Wrong starting byte from co2 sensor! (should be FF)");
        return -1;
      }
    
      if (response[1] != 0x86)
      {
        Serial.println("Wrong command from co2 sensor! (should be 86)");
        return -1;
      }
    
      int responseHigh = (int) response[2];
      int responseLow = (int) response[3];
      int ppm = (256 * responseHigh) + responseLow;
      
      return ppm;
    }
    
    


  • Hi!

    Thank you for sharing, can you please point me out how do I wire this thing up? 🙂


  • Mod

    @daniel-oliveira isn't this sufficient? If not, what is missing?

     *  MH-Z19 CO2 sensor
     *  It communicates with your board over serial at 9600 speed.
    ---
    SoftwareSerial mySerial(10, 11);                  // RX, TX . You can choose other pins if you prefer.
    


  • @mfalkvidd said in MH-Z19 CO2 sensor:

    @daniel-oliveira isn't this sufficient? If not, what is missing?

     *  MH-Z19 CO2 sensor
     *  It communicates with your board over serial at 9600 speed.
    ---
    SoftwareSerial mySerial(10, 11);                  // RX, TX . You can choose other pins if you prefer.
    

    Missed that one, got confused due to the multiple possible ways to connect this sensor. (UART, PWM, etc)

    So TX, RX, GND and Vin sould be enough?


  • Mod

    @daniel-oliveira I haven't tried myself, but I think so.



  • @daniel-oliveira said in MH-Z19 CO2 sensor:

    TX, RX, GND and Vin

    I can confirm only TX, RX, GND and Vin are needed. I've setup the device with a Wemos D1 Mini using the code found here https://github.com/jehy/arduino-esp8266-mh-z19-serial/

    It's not MySensors related though, I've yet to try MySensors myself but registered to this forum to reply as I found this conversation while looking for code samples for the sensor. 🙂


  • Mod

    Thanks for confirming @ristomatti, and welcome to the forum 🙂



  • I just tried using this code on an different board and got some weird output from the sensor (FFFFFF instead of FF as the starting byte). I found some mumbo-jumbo explanations of what Arduino is doing here. But the short of it is, is that this code fixes that issue (by wrapping the output in byte() functions).

    /*
     * The MySensors Arduino library handles the wireless radio link and protocol
     * between your home built sensors/actuators and HA controller of choice.
     * The sensors forms a self healing radio network with optional repeaters. Each
     * repeater and gateway builds a routing tables in EEPROM which keeps track of the
     * network topology allowing messages to be routed to nodes.
     *
     * Created by Henrik Ekblad <henrik.ekblad@mysensors.org>
     * Copyright (C) 2013-2015 Sensnology AB
     * Full contributor list: https://github.com/mysensors/Arduino/graphs/contributors
     *
     * Documentation: http://www.mysensors.org
     * Support Forum: http://forum.mysensors.org
     *
     * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
     * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
     * version 2 as published by the Free Software Foundation.
     *
     *******************************
     *
     *  DESCRIPTION
     *
     *  MH-Z19 CO2 sensor
     *  
     *  It communicates with your board over serial at 9600 speed.
     *  
     *  
     *
     */
    
    
    //------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    // if you uncomment this, you can get test and debug updates about the sensor' wireless connection by using the serial monitor tool.
    //#define MY_DEBUG
    
    // Enable and select radio type attached
    #define MY_RADIO_NRF24                            // A 2.4Ghz transmitter and receiver, often used with MySensors.
    // #define MY_RF24_PA_LEVEL RF24_PA_MIN           // This sets a low-power mode for the radio. Useful if you use the verison with the bigger antenna, but don't want to power that from a separate power source. It can also fix problems with fake Chinese versions of the radio.
    // #define MY_RADIO_RFM69                         // 433Mhz transmitter and reveiver.
    
    // Choose if you want this sensor to also be a repeater.
    // #define MY_REPEATER_FEATURE                    // Just remove the two slashes at the beginning of this line to also enable this sensor to act as a repeater for other sensors. If this node is on battery power, you probably shouldn't enable this.
    
    
    // Libraries
    #include <MySensors.h>
    #include <SoftwareSerial.h>
    
    
    // This can be changed:
    unsigned long co2MeasurementInterval = 30000;     // Time to wait between reads (in milliseconds).
    SoftwareSerial mySerial(3, 4);                    // RX, TX . You can choose other pins if you prefer. Remember: TX (transmit) on the sensor must be connected to RX (receive) on the Arduino.
    
    
    // Mysensors settings
    #define CHILD_ID_CO2 0                            // The Co2 sensor' ID on this node.
    MyMessage msgCo2(CHILD_ID_CO2, V_LEVEL);
    MyMessage msgCo2b(CHILD_ID_CO2, V_UNIT_PREFIX);
    
    
    void presentation()
    {
      // Send the sketch version information to the gateway and Controller
      sendSketchInfo("AIQ Sensor CO2 MH-Z19", "1.1");
    
      // Register attached sensor(s) to gateway
      present(CHILD_ID_CO2, S_AIR_QUALITY);
      send(msgCo2b.set("ppm"));
    }
    
    
    void setup() 
    {
      delay(1000);
      Serial.begin(9600);
      delay(1000);
    
      mySerial.begin(9600);
      delay(2000);
      while (mySerial.read()!=-1) {};  //clear Co2 buffer.
      Serial.println("hello world, I am a sensor.");
    }
    
    
    void loop() 
    {
    
      // You should not change this variable:
    static unsigned long previousCo2Millis = 0;       // Used to remember the time of the last temperature measurement.
    
    unsigned long currentMillis = millis();           // The time since the sensor started, counted in milliseconds. This script tries to avoid using the Sleep function, so that it could at the same time be a MySensors repeater.
    
      if (currentMillis - previousCo2Millis >= co2MeasurementInterval) { // this only gets triggered when enough time has passed.
        Serial.println("CO2 - Sending data request to sensor.");
        previousCo2Millis = currentMillis;
        
        long co2ppm = readCO2();    
        Serial.println("Co2 - PPM = " + String(co2ppm));
        send(msgCo2.set((long)ceil(co2ppm))); 
        Serial.print("Co2 - zzzzZZZZzzzzZZZZzzzz\n");
      }
    
    }
    
    
    // Main function that gets the Co2 data
    int readCO2()
    {
      while (mySerial.read()!=-1) {};  //clear serial buffer  
    
      char response[9]; // for answer
      byte cmd[9] = {0xFF, 0x01, 0x86, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x79};
      
      // command to ask for data
      mySerial.write(cmd, 9); //request PPM CO2 
    
      mySerial.readBytes(response, 9);
    
        Serial.print(byte(response[0]), HEX) ;
        Serial.print(" - ");   
        Serial.print(byte(response[1]), HEX) ;    
        Serial.print(" - ");    
        Serial.print(byte(response[2]), HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");          
        Serial.print(byte(response[3]), HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");          
        Serial.print(byte(response[4]), HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");          
        Serial.print(byte(response[5]), HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");        
        Serial.print(byte(response[6]), HEX);   
        Serial.print(" - ");   
        Serial.print(byte(response[7]), HEX);
        Serial.print(" - ");      
        Serial.print(byte(response[8]), HEX); 
        Serial.println(" - END");  
    
      if (byte(response[0]) != 0xFF)
      {
        Serial.println("Wrong starting byte from co2 sensor! (should be FF)");
        return -1;
      }
    
      if (byte(response[1]) != 0x86)
      {
        Serial.println("Wrong command from co2 sensor! (should be 86)");
        return -1;
      }
    
      int responseHigh = (int) byte(response[2]);
      int responseLow = (int) byte(response[3]);
      int ppm = (256 * responseHigh) + responseLow;
      
      return ppm;
    }
    


  • Hello,

    I finally got this sensor to work but instead I use this lib: https://github.com/nara256/mhz19_uart
    Another very useful source of information is this: https://revspace.nl/MHZ19#command_0x62_.28device_name_.2F_id.29

    Take note that is the MH-Z19B the methods isWarming() and getStatus() do not work.

    Can you please share the values that you are getting? I'm getting around 1500ppm and it is alarming by these website standards:
    https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/co2-comfort-level-d_1024.html
    https://www.kane.co.uk/knowledge-centre/what-are-safe-levels-of-co-and-co2-in-rooms

    I didn't have the opportunity yet to get the sensor outdoors.

    Thank you in advance



  • I get values between 300 and 1500 I believe.



  • Hi there,
    I'm currently trying to make it work (on an arduino pro mini 3.3), but won't succeed.
    I keep having the following output :

    CO2 - Sending data request to sensor.
    1 - 40 - 1 - 0 - 1 - 21 - 3 - 15 - 0 - END
    Wrong starting byte from co2 sensor! (should be FF)
    Co2 - PPM = -1
    Co2 - zzzzZZZZzzzzZZZZzzzz
    

    Sometimes the second value is different but the first one is always 1. And obviously 1 is not FF 🙂 . However I don't understand what's wrong in there.

    I have to mention I'm using the MH-Z19B, and powering it with 5V, as opposed to the 3.3v of the arduino.
    I also tried with the mhz19_uart lib, but didn't go further with it as the samples where not working out of the box with the z19B. Will probably give it another try, though...



  • Hmm, tried wiht the uart lib, after removing the unsupported parts, no luck either.



  • @alowhum

    Thank you for posting this..... I tried it today and it works well! 🙂

    To test it I wondered where to get a source of co2 from, then an idea hit me......So I opened a beer 🙂
    I tipped it into a pint glass and drank most of it. Then, when I remembered the reason for opening the beer, I dangled the sensor into the glass, well above the liquid, placed my hand on top to seal it and swirled the beer around to release the co2 that makes it fizzy - result?

    Well in the room I was getting a constant reading of 395, but in the beer glass it went to 1711, 3055, 5000 !!! - So it works!

    Removing the sensor back to normal room air and it dropped back to 396 within 90 seconds.

    So quite impressed at the moment. So far this it the most expensive sensor I have used. About $18 for the 'B' version.



  • @skywatch you're welcome. Did you use a 5v or 3.3v Arduino? I still have to figure out if this sensor's serial port is 5v tolerant. The MH-Z14 is.


  • Hardware Contributor

    @alowhum said in MH-Z19 CO2 sensor:

    @skywatch you're welcome. Did you use a 5v or 3.3v Arduino? I still have to figure out if this sensor's serial port is 5v tolerant. The MH-Z14 is.

    Datasheet (for model B) says "3.3 V(Compatible with 5V)"


 

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