As a ballpark, I'm starting to doubt it's worthwhile to target solar sources which produce less than 7na under dim light. Even if 100% of the current could be harvested without any declines, it would take 8 hours at a constant 7na rate to charge a 100u capacitor from 0 volts up to 2 volts. At that level, I'm sure I can get a wireless node to send or listen for enough packets to be interesting.
I'm estimating my supervisory overhead, if successful, may come out to around 1na. So, in all likelihood, the "worthwhile" lower bound for solar harvesting will be somewhere in the 1na to 7na range for a wireless node. A realistic lower bound would most likely be an even higher range to account for inevitable inefficiencies.
My keychain solar panel can produce 88na (short circuit current) under 1 lux lighting, give or take. So, when it's finally all put together, I guess the only thing that's going to vary will be just how dim it can all still function at.
On the other hand, if the light is reasonably bright, then even just a single photodiode may suffice as a worthwhile power source. In that case the entire device could, in theory, be ridiculously small.
Still, I suppose the most conservative answer comes not from how much energy is required to charge a 100u cap from 0 volts 2 volts, but rather in how much energy is required to sustain that level (while accomplishing at least some minimal amount of work) once it has been achieved. In that case, the minimum harvested energy would just be the supervisory overhead plus storage capacitor leakage plus the energy required to , say, power up an MCU and send one packet once per 24 hours. All the MCU's currently on the market that I'm aware of consume more than 7na even while turned off, so the MCU would need to be turned off by a load switch, or in some other way by the supervisor, to eliminate even that minimal level of drain.
For that reason, I tried measuring the quiescent current of the Vishay load switch using the uCurrent Gold, which is when I ran into the picoamp measurement issues. The measurements I got were all over the map, but they were all less than 1 nanoamp.
That's an outline for getting the most aggressive answer. To finish the calculation I'll need to measure the total energy consumed by a wireless MCU powerup cycle, and that will depend on the particular wireless MCU that's chosen. That in turn will inform whether sleeping the MCU will actually consume less than a full power cycle. In the case of an atmega328p and an RFM69, the combined sleep current is 200na, but that alone doesn't account for the energy expended waiting for the radio's high speed oscillator to come up to speed and its PLL to engage.
Here's a benchmark for comparison: A 5x4mm PIN diode can produce as much as 45ua at an open circuit voltage of 320mv: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/427/vemd5080x01-1767531.pdf
Boosting that to 3 volts might yield 3 to 4 microamps at that higher voltage. Accumlating that electricity over time means that, at least in principle, the entire wireless node could be 5x4mm in size, or even smaller if a smaller PIN diode were used..