Just to summarize since the thread is becoming a bit confusing.
The sensor shown in the example and the shopping guide is no more than a device that measures the resistance between the two pins of the fork. That is done by the boards, which includes an analog output and a digital output.
Should you just need to know when moisture is over or below a certain degree, just connect the digital output to a digital pin in the Arduino. Then use the potentiometer in the board to decide the switching point. In a battery powered node, this could be connected to an interrupt pin so the node sleeps and is only waken up when the moisture falls under the predetermined level to send an alert to the controller. But if you want to know track how moisture evolves, you may connect the analog output of the board to an analog pin in the arduino, which will provide a numerical value. Then the sensor needs to be calibrated; there are several forms but one involves measuring the output when the fork is submerged in water (which would be 100% moisture) and then when it's in air (that would be 0%). You can then map this scale to a moisture scale, typically a cb scale.
The negative side of using that board is that the current always flows in the same direction through the fork. The same occurs with another similar type of sensor like the sparkfun here. This will lead in some time to corrosion of the fork, even if it's one of the latest nickeled ones. Reports in the internet vary from weeks to months, but in any case the form will corrode and as a result the measurement will drift slowly.
The alternating polarization strategy tries to overcome this problem. To do so, the board is removed and only the fork is used. Instead of connecting it to Vcc and GND, the two terminals are connected so that the fork is actually one of the resistors in a voltage divider. The other resistor is usually a 10k resistor. In this setup, one of the digital pins is connected to one leg of the resistor, the other resistor leg is connected to one side of the fork, and the other side of the fork is connected to the other digital pin on the Arduino. Another wire needs then to be connected between the connection between the resistor and the fork, to an analog pin of the Arduino, which will read a value that will be proportional to the resistance of the fork, therefore to the moisture level. Then, by switching the pins from INPUT to OUTPUT, and from HIGH to LOW, you can have the current flow in one direction or the opposite one, which significantly delays the corrosion. In my case, the forks still look like new after months of use. Corrosion speed will still obviously depend by time between readings, reading time, soil type and other factors. I've never experimented with this sensor but with a rain sensor I could see corrosion symptoms after some minutes of continuous readings. This sensor also needs to be calibrated in a similar way as the former one. This setup makes the sketch a bit more complex but there are multiple examples here and in the internet.
There are also variations on the measurement strategy within this approach. For example, you may just take a reading in one direction, another reading in the other direction, convert them to moisture level, and average them. Other people take several readings and average them all. I realized that if the reading is repeated, the value increases with each reading until it stabilizes at a certain value, so I decided to have the sketch iterate until two consecutive readings get the same result. The measuring time also needs to be asessed; in my investigation, the shorter the time, the less battery consumption, but at some point around 5ms the readings started to be unreliable. On the other hand, the longer the measurement the more realiable, but the span of the measurements in analog pin where closer and closer which led to loss of accuracy, and of course higher battery consumption. I decided 10ms was a good balance but others' milage may vary.
Finally, there are other completely types of moisture sensor that measure the soil dielectric constant instead of its resistance. They are said to be more reliable, and additionally they do not suffer from corrosion since they do not need to be conductive, hence they are covered by a layer of non-metal material (probably epoxy?). This makes them more durable but also more expensive. I have no experience with those.
I hope this contributes to clarify this topic a little bit. This thread contains additional information on the same topic.